Cloisonné is an enameling technique which consists of soldering to a metal surface delicate metal strips bent to the outline of a design and filling the resulting cellular spaces, called "cloisons". The object then is fired, ground smooth, and polished. Sometimes metal wire is used in place of the usual gold, brass, silver, or copper strips. The great Western period of cloisonné enameling was from the 10th to the 12th century, especially in the Byzantine Empire. In China cloisonné was widely produced during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In Japan it was especially popular during the Tokugawa and Meiji periods.